Preventive Care

Managing Weight Loss

Over 69% of Americans are considered overweight or obese and this number continues to climb at alarming rates. Since the early 1980s, when sugar intake was increased exponentially in the American diet, waistlines have continued to soar. Not being at your ideal body weight can directly affect your blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol, as well as put you at risk for diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and other causes of mortality. That being said, a lot of people have a desire to loose weight in 2016, but don’t know how or where to start.

Having a plan with achievable goals is key. If you have a desire without a plan, you can easily find your weight unchanged or even higher at the end of the year. Schedule an appointment with your health care provider and have an individual resting metabolic rate measured. This tells you exactly how many calories you burn each day at rest. If you consume more calories than you burn then you will gain and not loose weight.Remember being full is not the same as being nourished. What foods we choose to eat for fuel determines how well our bodies perform mentally and physically. Keeping a food diary of the kinds of foods you eat, amounts, as well as the calories and nutrition content can be made simple with modern technology. This information can easily be reviewed with your health care provider to make changes in your diet based on your metabolic rate and weight loss goals, as well as strategies to combat social influences, habits, schedules, and other life stressors that can hinder your end results.

Cervical Cancer Screening

  • Screening for cervical cancer in women ages 21 to 65 years with cytology (Pap smear) every 3 years or, for women ages 30 to 65 years who want to lengthen the screening interval, screening with a combination of cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing every 5 years.
  • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against screening for cervical cancer in women younger than age 21 years.
  • The USPSTF recommends against screening for cervical cancer in women older than age 65 years who have had adequate prior screening and are not otherwise at high risk for cervical cancer.
  • The USPSTF recommends against screening for cervical cancer in women who have had a hysterectomy with removal of the cervix and who do not have a history of a high-grade precancerous lesion (i.e., cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 2 or 3) or cervical cancer.
  • The USPSTF recommends against screening for cervical cancer with HPV testing, alone or in combination with cytology, in women younger than age 30 years.

Facts About The Common Cold

How Colds are Spread

Cold viruses grow mainly in the nose where they multiply in nasal cells and are present in large quantities in the nasal fluid of people with colds. The highest concentration of cold virus in nasal secretions occurs during the first three days of infection. This is when infected persons are most contagious.

Cold viruses may at times be present in the droplets that are expelled in coughs and sneezes.

Nasal secretions containing cold viruses contaminate the hands of people with colds as a result of nose blowing, covering sneezes, and touching the nose. Also, cold viruses may contaminate objects and surfaces in the environment of a cold sufferer. Young children are the major reservoir of cold viruses and a particularly good source of virus containing nasal secretions.

Experiments have demonstrated that a cold virus readily transfers from the skin and hands of a cold sufferer to the hands and fingers of another person during Virus on the fingers is transferred into the nose and eye by finger-to-nose and finger-to-eye contact. Virus deposited in the eye promptly goes down the tear duct into the nose. Once in the nose, a cold virus is transported by mucociliary action to the adenoid area where it starts an infection.

Cold Symptoms

Cold symptoms appear as early as 10 hours after a cold infection has started and increase in frequency and severity for 48 hours. After 48 hours, the symptoms usually begin to decline as the result of the natural course of the illness. For this reason, a cold treatment will do the most good when taken at the first recognition of symptoms. The treatment is thus applied over the period when most illness is expected (the first 3 days of infection).

The symptoms of a common cold include sneezing, runny nose, nasal obstruction, sore or scratchy throat, cough, hoarseness, and mild general symptoms like headache, feverishness, chilliness, and not feeling well in general.


Cold treatments recommended in have been properly tested and found to be effective. Their side effects are known and are acceptable for treating a mild illness like a cold. They include the following: older antihistamines, nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), decongestants (vasoconstrictors) and cough suppressants

A common cold is a two step process. The first step is virus infection of nasal cells. The second step is the activation of the inflammatory mediators which directly cause the cold symptoms

Ideally, it is desirable to treat both parts of the process but currently drugs for treating the virus infection (antiviral) are not commercially available.

Complications of Colds

When a common cold has lasted for 7-10 days and is no better or worse, acute bacterial sinusitis may have developed and additional medical care may be required.

Middle ear infection is mainly a problem in children, although it also occurs in adults. During colds, the tube from the back of the throat to the middle ear (eustachian tube) no longer functions well and pressure in the middle ear is abnormal in up to 75% of patients

Common colds can cause asthma attacks and acute worsening of chronic bronchitis in patients with this condition. These episodes are characterized by increased cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and sometimes fever. The fever is presumably due to a secondary bacterial infection and not the viral cold.

Treatment with antibiotics is usually recommended in acute attacks of chronic bronchitis. People with chronic bronchitis and other types of serious lung and heart disease should, when possible, avoid people with fresh colds (1-3 days).